Different Types of Schizophrenia

Different Types of Schizophrenia

Mental illness or disorder are becoming common concern for most of the people nowadays. People can experience different kinds of mental illness and Schizophrenia is one of them. Schizophrenia is one of the most common and leading mental disorders worldwide. According to an article published by NIH, Schizophrenia is 1 of the top 15 leading causes of disability worldwide. Research found that Schizophrenia affects approximately 24 million people or 1 in 300 people (0.32%) worldwide. There are different types of Schizophrenia which are termed as subtypes of Schizophrenia but first you have to understand what Schizophrenia is.

What is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. People with schizophrenia often face difficulties in doing well in education, work and relationships.

Different Types of Schizophrenia

Here the reader needs to note that these different types of Schizophrenia are actually subtypes of Schizophrenia as Schizophrenia itself is one type of mental disorders.

There are five distinct subtypes of Schizophrenia but in the updated version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) published by American Psychiatric Association has excluded these subtypes however, some mental health professionals still find these subtypes useful to determine the best ways to approach the treatment plans.

Paranoid Schizophrenia

Paranoid Schizophrenia which is now known as Schizophrenia with paranoia is a pattern of behavior where a person feels suspicious about other people. It can make things difficult for them to hold a job, have friendship, and run daily errands.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

Catatonic Schizophrenia is an obsolete term for this subtype of Schizophrenia. The new name of this condition is Schizophrenia with catatonia. This condition affects a person’s movements, behavior and ability to communicate.

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia is an obsolete term for this subtype of Schizophrenia. Doctors no longer use this criteria. Previously doctors may have diagnosed this type of Schizophrenia if a person was experiencing Psychotic symptoms such as disorganized thinking or behavior, delusion and hallucination but did not meet the criteria of other subtype of Schizophrenia.

Residual Schizophrenia

As per DSM 4 when a person has at least 1 schizophrenic episode but no longer experiencing positive symptoms like hallucination, delusions and disorganized speech or behavior is called residual type of schizophrenia. A person with residual schizophrenia can have negative symptoms like lack of motivation, not showing emotions and restricted quantity of speech.

Disorganized Schizophrenia

In this case people don’t have hallucinations or delusions but they experience disorganized thinking, unusual speech patterns, emotions that don’t fit to the situation and difficulty to perform daily activities.

Symptoms of Different Types of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia involves a wide range of problems in thinking, emotions and behavior. Symptoms can vary from person to person.

Now let’s understand what are the symptoms of schizophrenia individually type wise.

Symptoms of Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • Delusions – Delusions means false beliefs which are not based on reality such as; suddenly you may start feeling that everyone wants to harass or harm you, someone is trying to control your brain, you have superpowers or you are a famous personality etc. Delusion appears in most cases of schizophrenia.
  • Hallucinations – Hallucinations usually involve seeing or hearing things which do not exist. There are 4 types of hallucinations: auditory, visual, Olfactory (Good and bad smell and tastes), Tactile (Feeling of things moving on your body or body parts). Among the hallucinations hearing multiple voices is a very common symptom of this type of Schizophrenia.
  • Disorganized Thinking and Speech – People with paranoid schizophrenia often find difficulty in thinking in an organized/proper way which results in disorganized speech. For example, a person experiencing paranoid schizophrenia may speak something that may not make sense in the conversation or may respond with unrelated topics in the conversation.
  • Disorganized or Abnormal Motor Behavior – Abnormal behavior such as silliness to unpredicted agitation and doing it repeatedly are the symptoms of this subtype of schizophrenia. If this kind of behavior gets severe then the person can experience difficulty in accomplishing his/her daily activities.
  • Negative Symptoms – Negative symptoms refer to the lack of normal mental functions. For example the person is not enjoying anything anymore, not showing emotions or feelings, no longer socializing, struggling with daily activities, all these are symptoms of Paranoid schizophrenia.
Catatonic Schizophrenia Symptoms
  • Catalepsy (Trance seizure with rigid body)
  • Waxy flexibility (Limbs stay in the same position placed by another)
  • Echolalia (Echos someone else’s sound or word)
  • Mutism (Lack of verbal Communication)
  • Negativism (Lack of response towards any instruction)
  • Posturing (Holding a comfortable position or posture)
  • Stereotypy (Doing same movement repeatedly)
  • Agitation (Getting irritated without any reason)
  • Echopraxia (Repetition of another person’s movement)
  • Grimacing (Holding same facial expression for long time)
  • Mannerism (Exaggerated movements)
  • Stupor (Almost unconscious)
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Symptoms
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Problem with emotion and emotional expression
  • Trouble with logical thinking
  • Decreased self-motivation
  • Lack of interest in social activities
  • Agitation
  • Neglect of personal hygiene
  • Abnormal movement
  • Excessive sleeping
  • Lack of sleep
  • Trouble in decision making
  • Exaggerated beliefs and behavior
  • Distorted speech
  • Motor skill impairment
  • Reduced speaking
Residual Schizophrenia Symptoms
  • Odd beliefs
  • Diminished speech
  • Social withdrawal
  • Unusual perceptions
  • Distorted thinking
  • Lack of motivation
  • Difficulty to express emotions
  • Inability to experience pleasure
  • Constant low energy level
  • Illogical thinking
Disorganized Schizophrenia Symptoms
  • Repeating the same thing over and over again
  • Forget or misplace things
  • Social withdrawal
  • Have difficulty to communicate
  • Difficulty in making eye contact
  • Rapidly shifting between topics
  • Usage of nonsense words for no reason
  • Have difficulty to run daily activities
  • Inability to think clearly and respond appropriately
  • Lack of impulse control
  • Disorganized behavior

Life Expectancy for Schizophrenia

According to the NIH the life expectancy of people with schizophrenia gets reduced by 15 and 25 years. A research in 2015 found that people with schizophrenia are 3.5 times more likely to die each year than people who are not suffering from schizophrenia. Another study in 2021 shows that schizophrenia was the second most significant risk factor for dying of COVID-19. . The Schizophrenia Mortality trend shows a high rate of suicide in people aging less than 40 years. On the other hand, the NIH has mentioned in their article that suicide was the 10th leading cause of death in United States in the year 2019.

Stats of Schizophrenia

An estimated 4.9% of people suffering from schizophrenia have died by committing suicide. A survey shows schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are ranging between 0.25% to 0.64% in the United States. Approximately 1% of people in the United States are affected by Schizophrenia. It appears in men during their early 20’s and in women it appears during their 20’s or in early 30’s. The numbers are low for kids but symptoms of Schizophrenia can be seen 1 in 10,000 under the age of 13. However, the prevalence of childhood schizophrenia is estimated at 0.23% in kids aging between 13 and 18 years.

Schizophrenia affected people Worldwide Schizophrenia affected people in US Schizophrenia among adults in US
24 million3.7 million1.8% people among Schizophrenia affected people

Final Thought:

Now you know all the different types of Schizophrenia and their symptoms so if your loved one is experiencing the same symptoms then immediately consult with your doctor. The doctor may ask you to follow some different treatment plans and if you follow those plans then this can prevent relapses or worsening of symptoms.

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